Some of the books currently available on the subject of dieting are very good indeed. Books written by paleo dieters and also by committed vegans deserve praise, in my opinion. Of course, if books on low carb and on low fat dieting are both of a high standard, reading them could be confusing for someone who just wants to be healthy and a little lighter.

So, to start with, here is some simple guidance. The right diet for you is

  • One you can stick with
  • Promotes big, easy poos

Not so difficult after all, is it! Recent research from Belgium, which was corroborated by Dutch scientists, found that big, easy poos are a characteristic of a rich and varied community of gut microorganisms. You probably want a healthy community of gut bugs if even half of the claims currently being made on their behalf is true.

My own preference is for a whole food diet similar to the Mediterranean diet recommended by the NHS. However, I have enjoyed reading both of these.

  • The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living by Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney
  • How Not to Die by Michael Greger

They come from opposing viewpoints and both manage swipes at the other while promoting their own preferred diet.

As a neutral, I can’t help noticing that the vegans use the latest research when explaining the benefits of a plant-based diet but then use older research when discussing the opposition. That older research lumps grass-fed meat and beef broth enthusiasts in with the pie and chips brigade, which has the effect of making saturated fats look bad.

But the paleo and primal enthusiasts are equally guilty. They, too, use the latest findings for justifying their own choices but use ancient research which groups cake, biscuit and fizzy drink guzzling in with the kind of diet for athletes described in Matt Fitzgerald’s book.

Bang their heads together and you might get some sense out of them. Crucially, both camps are down on refined foods, which is why both kinds of diet, vegan and paleo, can work for the people who adopt them.

Despite all of the claims of bad advice from the medical community, damning saturated fats, the average person has not cut back on fats. Modern diets are high energy diets, rich in both fats and carbs. If we worked the way Superhod used to work or if we tried to backpack over all of the Munros, we could get away with eating a high energy diet, but we don’t and that is why so many of us now have Type 2 diabetes.

For sitting, whether in a car, at a desk or in front of the TV, we need a low energy diet which fills us up and that is where whole foods come in. Sugars, starches and fats are OK when encased in cellulose cell walls. We can’t digest the cellulose but our gut bugs can. They love the stuff and, at least until they digest it, the cellulose makes us feel full.

There is no end to the cake or pie, both sweet and savoury, that I can eat but apples and baked potatoes soon fill me up. Meaty diets also tend to promote satiety but the best diet ever measured for quelling hunger pangs was a super high fibre diet, which involved eating 3kg of vegetables, berries and nuts a day. Five hundred grams of cabbage as part of lunch is a little more than I could manage.

One other benefit of eating dietary fibre lies in the slowing down of absorption of glucose into the blood. If glucose levels stay within homeostatic limits, no new insulin needs producing. As insulin promotes weight gain, keeping its level constant is good for those of us who are already big enough.

Our taste buds can soon get used to a diet which contains very little refined sugar. When I was 14, nearly half a century ago, my mother announced that we were all giving up sugar in our tea. Getting used to tea without sugar took roughly ten days. Now, I cannot stand tea with sugar in it.

Life without sweets or cakes is also achievable and results in the discovery of sweetness in all sorts of natural foods, for example, ordinary potatoes. Taste buds recalibrate fairly quickly, although discipline is needed during the transition.

If you can make that breakthrough, whichever diet you opt for will work. Saturated fats may not be the danger still claimed by some and gluten definitely isn’t for the vast majority of the population but John Yudkin was right. Refined sugar is pure, white and deadly. Avoid!


Food for Thought

In a recent Guardian article, Martin Robbins wrote about weighing himself hourly for three days.  The article is well worth reading.  This paragraph caught my eye.

“The first surprise was just the sheer amount of mass involved. In three-and-a-bit days I consumed a massive 14.86kgs of stuff – about 33lbs. That was made up of 3.58kgs of food and 11.28kgs of drink (including 700 grams of a nice red). That’s way, way, way higher than I expected.”

That mass is roughly what my rucksack would weigh in total, including a tent and a stove, at the start of a six day hike without resupply.  Assuming I consume a similar mass when at home, two conclusions are obvious.  First, an awful lot of a backpacker’s daily consumption comes out of streams.  My second conclusion is that my lighter, backpacking diet is so different from what I eat at home that I really should treat myself to more, better, restaurant meals when I hit town.

A short walk in the Cairngorms

19 October

A long train journey got me to Aviemore after 2 hours waiting for a connection in Inverness.

During my wait, I visited a couple of phone shops and then went to Morrisons for an early lasagne lunch which made its presence known in some malodorous emissions later in the day. I asked for salad with the lasagne. It came, neatly displayed, on a separate plate, in a plastic bag, as if it was being kept for a special occasion. The salad was half coleslaw and the coleslaw was mostly mayonnaise. The mayo was pure white and probably safe for vegans. Nevertheless, I enjoyed my meal – at the time!

Arrival in Aviemore brought unwelcome news – snow on the tops. Clouds too. With the wrong shoes for snow, Roclite 295s, it looked as if this was going to be a low level trip.  Such heavy traffic on the road to Coylumbridge that I was glad to get on up the track beside the caravan park. Soon there were no more walkers but mountain bikers came by sporadically.

The Rothiemurchus forest, which as a biologist I had been looking forward to, soon became boring. The trees and shrubs were all the same age and largely devoid of birds.  This forest needs bison and wild boar to tear it up, producing a greater diversity of plants in the process.  Of course, if the Rothiemurchus was properly rewilded, I’d be the first to complain.

A family came by with their bikes set up for bike packing. I saw them pitching shortly after the Cairngorm Club footbridge. They must have known where they were going as few pitches are visible from the Lairig Ghru track.  The ground between the trees is covered by heather, bilberries and juniper, again all of the same age.

The track started climbing and still I was unable to spot any decent pitches. The heather moor above the forest was sodden and tussocky. Finally, when I had started to wonder whether I would find anything before dark, a pitch appeared. Sadly, it was on the other side of a healthy burn. And then the Trailstar was reluctant to fit the small patch of dry grass. One peg went in gravel over the edge of the burn’s bank and another was on the far side of a small, wet bog.


This morning is taking ages to brighten up because of heavy clouds. The Trailstar proved a hero. Enough rain fell to have the tiny bog under one corner of the tarp flowing but there was no condensation inside. By a stream, in Autumn!

The write up continued when I reached Bob Scott’s Bothy

Going back over the burn was no nicer than the first crossing had been and then the weather deteriorated. I put my poles away as my hands were cold and wet. Fortunately, the foul weather was hitting my back.

The summit turned out to be 2 kilometres of boulders with occasional grass and a couple of lochans. Green grass made its first appearance on the descent. Pitching a tent would be much easier on this side. The burn running south from the Pools of Dee was too boisterous for a visit to Garbh Coire bothy to be tempting so I decided to go to Corrour to try out the new facilities. Still the rain continued and each little side burn spewed across the path.

A walker emerged from the drab background. He was possibly Scandinavian and seemed a thoroughly decent chap. As we chatted a fast walker in black and red waterproofs descended from the murk hiding the Lairig. He overtook, telling me it was an hour to the bothy.

When the bothy came into view, I spotted one person in pale clothing as well as the fast walker in red. After an ill-advised shortcut to the bridge, I discovered that the two men were there to change the toilet bags. A couple of Germans were also in the bothy, waiting for a clearance in the weather for an ascent of Ben Macdhui. They must have spotted a patch of blue because they set off. The two workers burned their overalls in the fireplace and we settled down for tea and a blether. Malky, the fast walker, had to head back through the Lairig so he soon left, too.

The two of us left continued talking until a hiker, who had climbed the Devil’s Point joined us.  He was the sanitation expert’s son. Then they and their Labrador headed out. I followed after a civilised dump into the brand new toilet bag.

Writing up my adventure, using the Day One app on my phone, has halted again, this time by visitors to the bothy.  More in the next post.

Apigill and the Flow Country, again

Approached from the east, Apigill Hill had never been quite as daunting as it had been when climbing from the Borgie River.  However, this time, after a gorgeous ride from Kinbrace Station, I was floating upwards.  On a loaded Thorn xTc, my progress was steady, to put it kindly, but entirely free from lactate.  With no one able to accuse me of needing a rest, I had no qualms about stopping to take photos.

A realisation dawned.  I was nearly 10kg lighter than I had been when living just a few miles from the big hill.  There lies the beauty of retirement.  Consistency is possible in a way that it never can be when work is exhausting and plagued by meetings which go on into the early evening.

My previous best at sticking to a training effort had been four weeks on the surprisingly excellent Lance Armstrong Performance Program.  One retailer at Amazon UK currently has that book on sale for a penny, which suggests most people are unwilling to remember that Lance occasionally did good things.  As far as my own programme of pre-breakfast physical jerks and a wholefood diet is concerned, I’ve managed almost a year so far and the consistency appears to be paying off.

Back to the riding.  The weekend in Tongue was highly enjoyable but Monday morning meant battling into a stiff wind on the way back to the train at Lairg.  I stopped too often for photos and then lost more time fighting the wind on the endless climb from Altnaharra to The Crask.  Once over the top, I had to put the hammer down or miss the train.  I arrived with 15 minutes to spare.  Then the train was another 15 minutes late.  And if I had been late, the train would have been on time!

All of the photos were taken with a 50mm lens.  No wide angle shots.  This is pretty much what Flow Country looks like.

Between Kinbrace and Syre
Loch Badanloch under a big sky
It was a long way up from Strath Naver
And there is still a bit more to do
The summit, where granite ribs run through the psammite
Loch Loyal, east of the ben with the same name
Loch Loyal
Ben Hope from the south east
Near Altnaharra with Ben Griam More peeping over the moors
Ben Klibreck

Cycling in Caithness with an old phone

Caithness is a wonderful place to cycle when the wind is not blowing.  Dual suspension is overkill for forest roads but I can’t leave a bicycle as good as this one languishing in the shed.  What a shame I failed to move the pedal around before clicking the shutter.

As for camera gear, this picture was taken with an iPhone 4S.  Still a great little computer if somewhat overfaced by modern websites, which take ages to load largely because of all the advertising.  I wish Apple had shown some love for the SE at their recent event.  A phone of that size could be an ideal device for the outdoors enthusiast.


Exercise versus ageing

Between the ages of 77 and 95, Olga Kotelko set more than thirty world records for running and jumping.  A book was written about her by Bruce Grierson, a man who had started feeling  a bit frail after turning 47.  Shortly after an article appeared on the BBC website about her, Olga died.  Her death may have been delayed by exercising but that’s not the point.  The reason for carrying out endurance and strength training after retiring is to stay as active as possible so that life is as fulfilling as possible for as long as possible.  Olga certainly achieved that.

Is there anyone who wants to sit in a chair till the minibus comes to take them down to the Centre, where they can sit in another chair?  Is there anyone who wants to face up to the statistics on the many old people who die within a year of falling and breaking a hip.  Ageing can be grim if you do it sitting down.  So, health permitting, get up and boogie.


Here are a few of the many articles on the internet about the effect of exercise on ageing.  The first, from the Daily Mail, discusses telomeres.  Let’s face it, no discussion of ageing would be complete without giving a mention to our cellular aglets.

Can endurance exercise SLOW ageing? Intense aerobic training ‘prevents cells from shrinking and breaking over time’ 

Please note that lengthening telomeres may also require reducing stress and improving the quality of both your diet and sleep.  Warning: the following reference contains traces of Ornish.

Lifestyle Changes May Lengthen Telomeres, A Measure of Cell Aging

Promoting independence by defeating chronic illness

Staying active is what it’s all about.  Arthritis and diabetes brought on or aggravated by obesity is certain to put a damper on things.  Here’s what the US Department of Health and Human Services has to say on the benefits of exercise for the elderly.

Your Everyday Guide from the National Institute on Aging

The Guardian has this positive offering.

Could extreme exercise help slow down the ageing process?

Sadly, Dr Charles Eugster, whose photograph begins the article, has also died but, as with Olga, he did not go gentle.  I quite fancy being a wild man who caught and sang the sun in flight so it’s a good job I like backpacking.

The fight against muscle wastage

The next article, from the New Scientist, suggests that a pill may help those who cannot maintain muscle mass through weight training.  It discusses sarcopenia and alleges the problem is the biggest killer you’ve never heard of.  Free radicals are at the heart of it.

Exercise may be the best anti-ageing pill

I wouldn’t mind betting that Olympic athletes are already abusing the drugs mentioned in the article.  You heard it here first!  For the rest of us, Mens’ Fitness has this practical advice.

The anti-aging workout

The Brain

Remember that the brain is a physical structure which responds to the burdens you place on it.  According to 80/20 Running by Matt Fitzgerald, one of the reasons we tire when running is because the brain gets tired.  Training strengthens the brain and so we are able to run further and more stylishly.  Personally, I’d learn to paint, a language such as Italian and coding in Swift if I wanted to get smarter but the Independent has this article on how exercise can improve brain activity.

Do these exercises to make you smarter?

 I’ll end with this reference to an article in Time because most readers (both readers?) will have given up a long time ago.

Exercise Slows Brain Aging By 10 Years

Ten more years of sharp thinking because exercise helps to maintain an effective blood flow to the brain.  Sounds good to me.



Citius, altius, fortius for the Over Sixties

A demanding job can erode the willpower needed for making the best health decisions on arriving home from work. My fitness had certainly started to slide by the time I reached retirement age. Luckily, retirement is a wonderful opportunity and health became one of the projects I took on to occupy the time once spent earning a crust.

Apparently, serious illness is common in the first year of retirement. In my case it was shingles. Buying a house was the next distraction so only last Autumn, following weight gain during a visit to Paleo friends, did I finally get serious about my health and fitness project.

A confession is needed. Thanks to cycle touring, backpacking, jogging and some kayaking, I’ve always been fitter than average. The job was demanding enough, though, in terms of time and energy, to ensure that I never reached my potential in any physical activity. Also, I didn’t enjoy gym work and never realised how important physical jerks are till being incapacitated by back trouble ten years ago. The pain was astonishing.

The doctor said the back problem was age related. In other words, I needed to get used to it because it was going to get worse. Luckily, he was wrong. I did what the physiotherapist said and was soon free of pain. But I was inconsistent, doing enough work on core stability to stave off back trouble but no more.

Last Autumn, that pattern changed.  At least five days a week since then, I have exercised before breakfast and the consistency has paid off. I can run faster, jump higher and lift more than I could five years ago.

Obviously, I’ll never again achieve the athletic prowess enjoyed thirty years ago. I could run a half marathon then in the time I now need for ten miles, but improvements are still possible.

And that is the takeaway message. There is no need to cling to the shreds of what once was. We can improve on every physical measure by wise use of the opportunities provided by retirement. I’m not just talking about endurance. We can improve speed, strength, coordination, balance and flexibility after our sixtieth birthday. I’m even walking more fluidly than I used to.

The key is putting some work into the muscles of the lower abdomen and also into the muscles around the shoulder blades. I had to start with Sarah Keys Back Sufferer’s Bible. Then came the 12 exercises of the 7 Minute Workout and a move on to Adrian James’s three apps. This morning I kept pace with Mark Lauren’s EFX Workout Number 1. Progress is addictive and fun, even though I get nothing from these recommendations.

The reason for starting with exercises for the torso is that good technique becomes easier for any other activity, meaning fewer injuries. Over Sixties are likely to be slow recovering from damage so injuries need avoiding. Many years ago, a brilliant rugby player told me that his secret was the strength in his abdominal muscles. I wish I had understood what he was telling me because a lot of running injuries and that back trouble could have been avoided.

Bones need help from muscles in keeping us upright. If the muscles of our torso are effective in rotating our pelvis, supporting our spine and in moving our shoulders, there is little we cannot achieve.

Even if we are Over Sixty.

The Skerray Loop and Apigill Hill

Riding along a coastline usually means crossing valleys. Between each valley is a climb, followed by a descent which gives away all of the altitude you’ve worked so hard to gain. On the north coast of Scotland, one of the toughest hills is Apigill. One hundred and fifty metres of ascent followed immediately by the same amount of descent. Before that struggle, however, was the gorgeous Skerray loop.

Although too late for well-lit photos, I was able to enjoy looking down on Coldbackie’s sandy beach and looking up to the impressive, conglomerate buttresses of Watch Hill. Jeremy Clarkson once parked a Landrover on its summit. The views from Ben Tongue and Watch Hill, out over the Rabbit Islands, are vast, which may be why these hills appealed to the Top Gear crew.

The Skerray Loop and Apigill Hill
Coldbackie beach.jpg
Coldbackie beach
The Black Lochan and Watch Hill from the south
View from Watch Hill

Past Coldbackie is the turn to Skullomie, where a short walk to the abandoned crofts at Sleiteil begins. Sleiteil is an island of green in a sea of heathery bog. It must stand out to migrating birds as I have seen whoopers and dotterel here. Sleiteil offers excellent, not so wild pitches. No access for sea kayaks though because of the beach’s rocky fangs.

Hiking to Sleiteil.jpg
Hiking to Sleiteil
Sleiteil beach

The road to Skerray runs across moors with rocks, bogs and heather before becoming more enclosed at Modsary, as the sign spells it. Here, a small, excitable, beagle type of thing chased me with surprising speed. I stopped and the dog began looking sheepish. A no through road leads to Skerray Pier and a harbour sheltered by Neave Island. It’s a very beautiful spot and well worth deviating from the shortest route along the north coast. The ride back to the main road, past Torrisdale Beach, is arguably more scenic than the ride into Skerray.

The Skerray road.jpg
The road to Skerray
Neave Island.jpg
Neave Island


Skerray harbour
Between Coldbackie and Skerray
Skerray coastline

The coastline from Coldbackie to Invernaver is an outstanding short expedition for any backpacker prepared to explore. Some bits need care but the whole coastline is stunning and the locals are friendly.

The Skerray Loop rejoins the main road near the western entrance to the Borgie Forest. A short way down the forest road, at the first car park, is a Millennium project consisting of a spiral path which passes through a Celtic alphabet of trees. I’ve never seen anyone else appreciating it but, in my opinion, it’s worth a look.

Enough prevarication. Apigill Hill. OK, I had been taking things easily. Nevertheless, I was astonished to reach the summit with barely a trace of lactate in my leg muscles. I’ve cycled this hill more than a dozen times since retirement and this was my easiest ever ascent. It seems that pre-brekky physical jerks have improved my fitness. I certainly can’t claim to have been getting the miles in on the bike.

View from Bettyhill store.jpg
View from the Bettyhill store

The Bettyhill Store provided a pie and a pint of milk as well as a chat with a delivery driver who enjoyed cycling. After that, it was a question of covering the ground and deciding where to spend the night.

An undistinguished high point provided 360 degree views of the most northerly Corbetts and Ben Hope around to Morven and on to Dunnet Head and Hoy. I could see a huge cruise ship giving passengers a close up of the Old Man and St Johns Head. At Armadale is the winner of the 2015 Scottish Sheep Farm of the Year and, if you have the time, the lighthouse at Strathy Point is worth visiting.

Portskerra is worth a side trip

Crossing the bridge over the river at Melvich, I noticed something fishing so I stopped. Two otters were diving repeatedly and having plenty of success. After five minutes they disappeared. Maybe they had become tired of my nosiness.

My next stop and chat was at Reay Store. A young cycle tourist who had been on Orkney, a possible destination for me, praised Brown’s Hostel in Stromness but said he was holing up for two days in Tongue Youth Hostel because of forecasted 45 mph winds. Deciding home was best if the weather was going to get excessively boisterous, I headed south at Westfield past Lochs Calder, Scarmclate and Watten for a brief stop at Tesco before going home.

A 70 mile day with no trace of hunger knock, also known as hypoglycaemia. My fat metabolism must be improving. Cutting out sugary things and working out first thing in the morning is paying off. Highly recommended, as is the Skerray Loop.

Rainy days and Fridays

Tens of thousands of midges exerted a noticeable pressure on exposed skin as I took the tent down. The couple of bites sustained were a testament to the power of Smidge. As soon as I reached the road, a headwind sprang up. Then it began to rain. Not an auspicious beginning to a day, which, amazingly, was brilliant.

The road to Syre shows Flow country at its best and the road onward to Altnaharra was even prettier, although the traffic was quite heavy. At Altnaharra, I could have gone directly to Tongue but the riding was so good, I decided to head on to Hope. More gorgeous riding and great views of Ben Hope.

Um, Mackay Country.jpg
Guess which country

At Syre I had had a good chat with a Lands End to John o’ Groats walker. Two oncoming cyclists didn’t stop to chat but, in fairness, they were going downhill with a following wind. On the Hope road I met two pairs of cyclists, the first fast day cyclists, who twice caught me snacking, and the second were fully loaded tourers heading I know not where.

Ben Klibreck
The Hope road.jpg
The Hope road
Loch Meadie.jpg
Ben Hope from Loch Meadie

The hill up from Hope was harder than I remembered but the descent was brilliant. I went along the coast lane and up through the woods to my friends’ croft. Great welcome and a nice way to end two fabulous days of cycling. The Watten, Westerdale, Altnabreac, Forsinain, Kinbrace, Syre, Altnaharra, Hope route offers a scenic tour of Britain’s remotest roads. Gorgeous.

The Kyle causeway and Ben Loyal.jpg
Kyle of Tongue causeway
Ben Loyal.jpg
Ben Loyal

The Strade Bianche of Caithness

Fabulous riding. Sunshine and a following wind. Not too much traffic on the back road to Loch Watten, where an encampment in the picnic area delayed my first snack. A big tent was being used as an awning extension for a gaudy camper van.

Flow Country.jpg
Sketch map showing the route of a stunning, three day cycle tour

After a second snack stop at Westerdale Mill, I reached the dirt roads, which had many dragonflies. At lovely Loch Keise (third snack stop) was a fishing boat with oars labelled Wandsworth Youth River Club Putney. I photographed Aultnabreac railway station and then headed off across the nature reserve. The RSPB have a permanent warden with a caravan in a corner just off the main dirt road.

Westerdale Mill.jpg
The mill at Westerdale
The inevitable…
Loch More.jpg
From Loch More to Forsinain is 16 miles on a dirt road
I hate these gates.jpg
Lifting a loaded bike through these gates is not easy
Riding these roads is not difficult.jpg
Easy riding and plenty of dragonflies
Loch Keise.jpg
Loch Keise
A remote railway station.jpg
A useful railway station
A sheltered bit.jpg
One of the few sheltered bits after the level crossing
The three gates open easily.jpg
There are three unlocked gates

A bit of a headwind on the drag to Kinbrace became a tailwind on the Syre road as the landscape was reddened by the setting sun. I just got to a pitch behind Rimsdale croft before darkness fell.

Not long till sunset.jpg
Evening light on the moors
Rimsdale croft.jpg
Rimsdale croft
Even closer to sunset.jpg
The end of a perfect day